Saturday, June 27, 2020
Describe Leadership and Qualities of a Good Leader (Essay Sample) Content: Leadership and Qualities of a Good LeaderNameInstitutionInstructorDateIntroductionLeaders and leadership is a field that has been faced with critical controversies. The qualities of the leader may be developed, inborn, or inspired by the followers. Many leadership theories that attempt to explain the concepts of leadership have been developed. The writer will evaluate his admired leader in the lens of the three leadership theories. The three leadership theories will be the trait, the behavior, and the transformational theory. The writer will explore the qualities that have made him a success and evaluate his personal leadership qualities in the lens of the admired leader. The writer will explain his idea and plan for his leadership improvement.Analysis of the Admired LeaderMy admired leader is the recent United States president-elect Donald Trump. The person has come from a humble background and has established a multi-billion real estate business building it from scr atch. In the last elections held in the United States, the person emerged the winner despite most of the former leaders failing to support him. The person was vying for the presidential seat using a political party that to the eyes of many was most likely to lose. However, the outcome of the results was a rude shock to most of the people that thought their opinions and votes would determine the results. However, for the keen people like me, it was possible to sit back and reflect on the leadership qualities that had made Donald Triumph despite the rejection of most of the people and the lack of the majority of the electoral votes.Donald can be explained as a leader that is capable of setting his mission and relevant goals that he is able to follow through (Ewoh, 2013). From the establishment of a multi-billion real estate business from the scratch, it can be inferred that the person had a higher mission and goals of seeing his business prosper. He has followed the mission and the vi sion that has seen the business grow from nothing to a world leader and competitor. Through his business involvements, Trump can be seen as a person that possesses appropriate negotiation and communication skills relevant for a leader and a winner. To close the deals in the real estate in a winning position, the person need to have the best negotiation skills and ability to determine the least value he can take in the deal and when to let go.Trump can be seen as a person that believes in himself and is not afraid of saying what he is convinced despite the other people`s perceptions. The idea of having the majority as right and the minority as wrong to him is alien. He believes that in most of the cases, the majority are misguided and it is the duty of the leader to transform them and make them see the light. He employed the design in showing that most of the Americans and the World was wrong about the leadership in the US and that it was in dire need for the change. Throughout his c ampaign, he stuck to what he had said despite receiving critical condemnation and dissipation from the people of different opinion that were perceived to be many.However, his conviction, patience, and ability to set goals and follow them through made him stick to his original plan (Ewoh, 2013, p. 124). It was quite fascinating to see the persons that were critiquing his ideas at first without giving them a thought pose and analyze the meaning and interpretation of the ideas later in the campaign. Donald had successfully employed the effective communication leadership strategies in his campaign. The issues that he had raised had caused stir and raised eyebrows in the US and in the globe. The design made sure that he had the attention of all the people in the America and across the globe. With their attention, what remained next was how to utilize the opportunity for his benefit and winning. Holding their attention depended on his leadership and performance that he utilized effectivel y throughout the campaign.Eventually, he disconnected from the interest at the final day by identifying with the other party, indicating his interest in protecting the concerns of the other party above his interests, disclosed what the other party was to gain by voting for him and what was at stake, and lastly, giving the voter the action point. The strategy represented the qualities of a good leader that identifies the concerns if the other party in the negotiations. The leader ensures a win-win situation for the concerned parties. Trump employed a rare marketing leadership stunt of prompting the target audience to towards a specific desired action (Ewoh, 2013, p. 129).Analysis of My leadership SkillsAssessment of my leadership abilities were developed in the four critical management functions and leadership perspectives. In the management dimension, I employed the systems management theories while in the leadership theory I employed the Maslows hierarchy of needs (Cory, 2004). My management design involves evaluation and focus on the effective performance of the organizational operation and functional non-human resources and the effective working of the systems through the human interface. I am a person that is focused on optimization of the organizational resources through multi-tasking rather than job specialization. I value innovation and creativity in the organization above the experience and the demonstrated skills and professionalism. I believe the creative and inventors are the workers that are responsible for changing the businesses and giving them a competitive upper hand in the business through invention and creation of bett...
Tuesday, June 2, 2020
Impacts Of Financial Forecasting In The Strategic Growth Of A Firm (Essay Sample) Content: Financial ForecastingNameInstitution AffiliatedDateIntroductionA financial forecast is a projection of the anticipated finances in terms of income, revenue and expenses. It gives a firm a reasonable idea of the anticipated revenues over a given period of time. This is essential to the strategic growth of the firm involved. Financial statements are also required in financial forecasting to ease the task of coming up with a business strategy. A firm has to come up with an accurate financial forecast to avoid business failure.DiscussionFinancial forecast should not be confused with a financial plan. Forecasting involves estimations, projections and anticipations of future finances. On the other hand financial planning involves clearly stated steps to generate and manage future finances. It is important to note that financial forecasting is a key consideration before coming up with a financial plan. Therefore, a financial forecast will highly affect the content of the fi nancial plan.A business plan is a tool for strategic planning which eventually if followed by strategic business growth. A financial forecast tries to predict what might happen in the future in terms of revenue and expenditure of a firm. This anticipated ensure that as a business lays down strategic steps it covers a given period with a general expectation. Planning also involves seeking financing. A forecast will project when the firm will need external funding and thus can be used by a bank as an evaluation resource before lending out a loan (Grant 2016). Therefore, financial forecast is important is seeking financial help which is important in achieving strategic growth goals of the firm.Very many risks face a business; that it why every entrepreneur needs to be a risk-taker. Unprecedented risks are the major causes in business failure. A firm that has a capability of foreseeing impeding risks will always have an upper hand in the market. This is what sets apart firms that are ab le to experience achieved strategic growth to be multinational and those that fail as startups (Bracker, Keats Pearson 1988). A well modeled financial forecast is able to foresee the expected and even at times unexpected risks and helping a firm in coming up with strategic growth plans that cater for the occurrence of the risks.Innovation is an important tool in strategic growth of a business. Firms that exhibit continued growth are always coming up with new products and ways to ensure the market is hooked up to them. A financial forecast is important when a company is to release a new product or employ new techniques into the market. The forecast will try to project the cost that the firm will undergo when launching a new product and the expected income that such products will earn the firm (Rhyne 1986). If the forecasting is precisely done, the firm will take measures to ensure that the business benefits maximally from the release of new product.A firm may use relevant employees to come up with a business forecast or may employ experts to do so. Whoever comes up with the business plan, they will be required to use financial statements. Financial statements help keep records of the business transactions. Forecast ideas are based on the firms financial sta...
Monday, May 18, 2020
Luigi Boccherini and Ludwig van Beethoven are amongst some of the most well-known Classical composers of all time. They have contributed many works to the Classical Period and will forever be recognized and cherished as artists. Luigi Boccherini, born on February 19, 1743, was a Classical Italian composer and cellist. He was born into a musical family and at a young age studied in Rome, and later flourished under royal patronage. Beethoven, baptized on December 17th, 1770, was a German composer and pianist. BoccheriniÃ¢â¬â¢s father began to give his son cello lessons when he was five years old, and continued his studies with AbbeÃ © Vanucci, the musical director of the cathedral at San Martino. BoccheriniÃ¢â¬â¢s compositions were first published whenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦His orchestral music includes around 30 symphonies and 12 cello concertos. Beethoven composed 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 6 string quartets, his great Mass the Missa solemnis, and one opera, Fidelo. Beethoven devoted himself to study and performance and while working under HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s direction; he sought to master counterpoint Ã¢â¬â counterpoint being the relationship between voices that are harmonically polyphony yet independent in rhythm and contour. This was European classical tradition, and much of the common practice of the Baroque period. Beethoven lost his hearing around 1798; having the cause of his deafness unknown, his hearing only partially recovered and during its gradual decline, was impeded by a severe form of tinnitus Ã¢â¬â the hearing of sound when no external sound is present. This is where he threw himself the music writing Sonatas for Piano and the second and third symphonies. The third symphony being in honor of Napoleon Bonaparte. The move from Heiligenstadt back to Vienna marked a change in his musical style. This was the start of his Ã¢â¬Å"heroicÃ¢â¬ period which was characterized by many original compositions of a grand scale Ã¢â¬â a term more frequently used as an alternative name for the middle period. Beethoven wrote the lastShow MoreRelatedMonteverdi, Vivaldi, Pachelbel, And Handel1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmusic. These periods are Baroque, Classical, and Romantic. In these periods there were several different composers who helped shape that period. Here are but a few in each of the period. In the Baroque period, some composers are Vivaldi, Monteverdi, Pachelbel, and Handel. There, of course, are much more as these are just four composers. First, Vivaldi, his full name is Antonio Lucio Vivaldi. Vivaldi was born in 1678 and grew to be an Italian violinist and a composer. He was born with angina pectorisRead MoreNotes On Beethoven String Quartet 1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDaniel Hamin Go Dr. Reiko Fueting Beethoven String Quartet 11 May 2016 String Quartets by Beethoven One could argue that Ludwig van BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s string quartets are one of the most significant collection of compositions in the history of classical music. These works range from the very beginning of his career, to the very end of his life, and therefore are labeled as: early (op. 18), middle (op. 59, 74, 95), and late (op. 127, 130, 131, 132, grosse fuge, 135) quartets. This essay will examineRead MoreEssay on Baroque Music1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessuch as fugues and cannons developed and different instruments were introduced. There were many composers that wrote music throughout the baroque era, some more significant than others but each contributing a large amount to the development throughout this period. Corelli was one of the first prominent composers of the Baroque era; he was an Italian composer and violinist writing music in a chamber style and in the form of the late baroque era. Corelli was born
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Facebook has been a one of the biggest phenomenons for the past decade and has had a huge affect mostly on the younger population. Technological determinism is that technology is a force for social change and Facebook does have some of the aspects of this. It is factor of Ã¢â¬Å"The Global VillageÃ¢â¬ because we rely on it to connect with other people from all over the world. Facebook has fortified behaviors such as narcissism and shyness. In the younger generations Facebook has problems with dependency and addiction for itÃ¢â¬â¢s users. It has become a social norm in the younger generation to have a Facebook account and the younger generation who do not are in the small percentage. Ã¢â¬Å"Facebook (2014) reveal that as of March 2014 there were 1.28 billion active users on the site per month, and at least 802 million of these users logged into Facebook every day.Ã¢â¬ (Ryan,133). It is the most used social media site in the world and It has become apart of over 800 million peop leÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives. It seems sometimes people are controlled by Facebook it becomes apart of them. Technological determinism and Facebook share some of the same qualities but are not completely intertwined with each other. Marshall McLuhan composed the term Ã¢â¬Å"The Global VillageÃ¢â¬ it states how technology allows for fast commutation connecting everyone together as one village. He was talking about television this was way before Facebook was even invented but Facebook to a certain degree integrates with this. An example of thisShow MoreRelated Does Technology Drive History? Essay688 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA theme that appears over and over in discussions about technology is whether or not technology is the cause of major social, cultural, political, and economic changes in modern society. Of course, we can find many, many examples of technologies associated with enormous social changes. The automobile, for example, is often spoke of as causing a whole array of social changes, from the creation of suburbia, to the development of the fast food industry, to the paving of farm land, to the importedRead MoreOrganizational Environment1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesb. Organizational Environment Organizational Environment: those forces outside its boundaries that can impact it. Forces can change over time and are made up of Opportunities and Threats. (7) The Organizational environment refers to the forces that can make an impact. Forces made up opportunities and threats. Organizations do not exist in isolation. It works with the overall environment. Scholars have divided these environmental factors into two main parts as. Internal Environment ExternalRead MoreAuthentic Wine Country s Business Model888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWith technology advancing so quickly, the onset of globalization, and ease of international finance, Authentic Wine CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s business model must change in order to adapt by becoming customer-centric versus product-centric, by mass-customizing versus mass-producing and by valuing knowledge and intelligence (Baltzan, 2013). In order to successfully market to the younger generation in such a business ecosystem, the use of mobile, social, video, cloud and big data must be adopted by Authentic WineRead MoreMaking A Proactive Change Management Decision897 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnow, I have considered making a proactive change management decision of going back to the academic arena of teaching continuing education classes in September for the fall semester. In the past, I have taught evening continuing education classes to adult students, who were enrolled in a medical billing certificate program. I miss teaching in the classroom, and I thoroughly enjoy training students for the workforce. The courses I taught were technology geared toward Microsoft Office software. Read MoreSocial Shaping of Technology and Technological Determinism1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagest Social Context of Society Social Context of Technology Ã¢â¬â Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Technology is an independent factor impacting on society from outside societyÃ¢â¬ Discuss with reference to both the Technological Determinist and the Social Shaping of Technology perspectives. The power technology obtains is incredible. In recent years itÃ¢â¬â¢s advanced greatly and I believe its limits is only our imagination. It is evolving at a quicker rate than ever and its happeningRead MoreOrganizational Environment1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesb. Organizational Environment Organizational Environment: those forces outside its boundaries that can impact it. Forces can change over time and are made up of Opportunities and Threats. (7) The Organizational environment refers to the forces that can make an impact. Forces made up opportunities and threats. Organizations do not exist in isolation. It works with the overall environment. Scholars have divided these environmental factors into two main parts as. Internal Environment External EnvironmentRead MorePolitics And Legal Trends : The Great Hope Church1238 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesundergone many changes. Churches are a non-profit organization but for the most part many of these non-profit organization are able to excel in revenue. Now, I want to make it clear as it relates to the Great Hope Church that ascertaining revenues was not always the bed rock of the church. Since the church was established before my time the last five years of serving there will be discuss. Politics and Legal Trends According to Cascio (2012) suggest that economics, social, technology, and politicsRead MoreGeek Squad777 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeek Squad? Technology Changes Ã¢â¬â as he said. Ã¢â¬Å"as long as there is innovation, there is going to be new kind of chaosÃ¢â¬ . His experience as a consultant led him to realize that most people needed help with technology and that they saw value in a service whose employees would show up at a specified time, be friendly, use understandable language and solve the problem. Regarding the consumers: His focus was to give the service to people who were less educated in the field of technology. Regarding theRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed Our World1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe rapid development in media technology has changed our world in many ways. It presented a variation of challenges and expanded several opportunities for people to shape their social life. For example, Skype, one of the many instant worldwide communication accesses, has helped people gain the benefit of diverse social networks. It altered how people communicate, relate to each other, and perform their business and daily affairs very easily within a long distance range. However, the extraordinaryRead MoreKarl Marx s Theories Of History And The Theory Of Human Nature Essay1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprofound impact on the world of intellectual thought. This paper will aim to discuss and determine with reference to MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature, if human beings are essentially the product of socioeconomic forces. In addition to one criticism of his theory of human nature. Firstly, this paper will explain Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature. According to Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s deterministic theory of history, human society is determined
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The unwarranted arrests of the gypsies are frequent in many types of vicinity of Wales and England. The police officers raid and torture them without any reason and they are compelled to stay silent in response to that attitude. In addition to that, they are not allowed to have an access to the courts for the justice. The record of the sentencing given for the indictable offences also shows that the discrimination is done against the susceptible groups of the population. According to that figures of the year 2010, highest average custodial sentencing was decided for the ethnic groups (Skolnick 2011). On the other hand, the white criminals are not given the harsh sentencing and are treated leniently. These statistics show that the criminal justice procedure in England and Wales needs an overhauling as far as the prejudice and racial discrimination is concerned. The prevalence of current trend of inequality would erode the trust of the citizens on the criminal justice in the country. W itnesses also bear significant distaste for the criminal justice system due to multiple factors. Most of the times, the witnesses deliberately do not come forwards to take part in the criminal procedure due to the repulsion resent in it. As a result of this lack of participation, the decision making and final verdict suffer from deficiencies and discrepancies. The witnesses are not provided the opportunity to evaluate and give the feedback about the participation in the hearings. The witnessesShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Need for Brutality in A Clockwork Orange 4668 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesof conditioning, is unfairly attacked for apparently gratuitous violence while it merely uses brutality, as well as linguistics and a contentious dÃ ©nouement, as a vehicle for deeper themes. Although attacks on A Clockwork Orange are often unwarranted, it is fatuous to defend the novel as nonviolent; in lurid content, its opening chapters are trumped only by wanton killfests like Natural Born Killers. Burgess Ted Bundy, a teenage Lucifer named Alex, is a far cry from the typical, spray paint-wielding
Anti-aging and the Japanese diet was a focal point of an article in the May 2011 issue of Life Extension. The Japanese diet is largely comprised of seaweed in which there are specific types that have high content levels of a certain substance referred to as fucoidans. These fucoidan molecules have an important role regarding numerous functions physiologically, and most people on the western part of the globe get very few of them. The Japanese Diet The people of Japan have always been known to consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and lots of fish. Along with their food is medicine perspective the population there, these two things combined are believed to have advanced them in aspects of anti-aging. Another distinctive key playerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to the article the fucoidans are related to halting inflammation while destructing invaders at the same time. Frankly, after reading about these power molecules, I m feeling as though we can t afford not to eat them via seaweed. For more valuable information regarding the Japanese diet and fucoidans, click here. Following a Paleo diet can allow one to reap enormous health benefits by eating the foods that were familiar to our ancient ancestors. However, this excludes a significant variety of Neolithic foods that have only been a part of human nutrition as of the advent of agriculture. These foods can impart certain health risks and chronic disease because our genome has not had enough time to evolve in a way that allows us to metabolize them. Here is a list of foods not allowed on the Paleo diet and considerations for occasionally indulging in them. Foods Not Allowed on a Paleo Diet: Grains These were only introduced into the human diet a mere ten thousand years ago during the advent of agriculture. These include breads, pastas, cereals, oats, barley, quinoa, amaranth, etc. Foods Not Allowed on a Paleo Diet: Legumes Legumes contain anti-nutrients called lectins that can create vitamin and mineral deficiencies as well as leaky gut syndrome. These include beans, peanuts, chickpeas, green beans, snap peas, etc. Foods Not Allowed on a Paleo Diet: Dairy This is of special concern to people who are not of Caucasian descent, because theyShow MoreRelatedThe Legacy Of Imperialism And Democracy Building After World War II1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In 1952, the U.S. Occupation of Japan ended and by 1955 the Japanese economy had regained its highest prewar production levels. A stable political system was also established with the conservative and pro-American Liberal Democratic Party s control of the government. Post-War National Identity From the sixties through the mid-eighties domestic politics were stable; the Liberal Democratic Party maintained a solid majority in the Diet (parliament) and emphasized close relations with the United StatesRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease ( Ad ) Is A Neurodegenerative Condition That Affects The Memory Function2719 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesinterventions are not found. AD has a huge affect on the world not only by the number of deaths that it is causing but also the amount of health care costs reaching around 100 billion dollars. Because of the increase of AD throughout the globe, the aging population should consider the intake of certain vitamins and nutrients in their daily lives to possibly reduce or prevent the onset of AD. Nutritional factors and nutritional deficiencies have a very strong correlation with cognitive decline asRead MoreThe Health Benefits of Drinking Tea Essay2325 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagestea. When complete, oxidization is stopped by hot air drying . With green tea, leaves are steamed or fried, rolled and dried. Steaming the leaves before drying prevents the breakdown of catechins and preserves the green leaf color. Catechins are anti-oxidants associated with the health benefits of tea. In black tea the leaves oxidize for two to four hours before processing, this causes them to darken and convert some of their catechins into other compounds. For Oolong leaves are partiallyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article 9 Of The Japanese Constitution 2725 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe reinterpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is today a contentious issue within Japanese society as well as in the global context. Through the reinterpretation, the Japan Self Defense Forces (JSDF) were for the first time authorized to engage in acts of collective self-defense. As elaborated below, this occurred as a natural response to an evolving foreign policy status quo. This paper provides a cursory overview of the post-WWII history of Japan and posits that the confluenceRead MoreVitamins and Minerals in Modern Society7964 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pagescontinent Table 2 - Eight-year decline in mineral content of a medium sized apple Graph 1 - Average mineral content in selected vegetables 1914 - 1997 Table 3 - Nutrients in traditional diets compared to 20th century Western diets Table 4 - Changes in the rates of selected reported chronic diseases (1980-1994) 16. Appendix 6: Mineral content changes from 1941 to 1991 Introduction In modern day society eating habits and daily nutrition hasRead MoreSpain and Japan Wine Industry Factbook12631 Words Ã |Ã 51 PagesLimitations of Research 1.3. Sources and Methods 2. Theories and Frameworks 2.2. Hofstede and SchwartzÃ¢â¬â¢s Model for Cultural Dimensions 2.3. Porter`s Five Force Model 3. Historical Development of the Wine Industry 3.1. Spainish Wine Industry 3.2. Japanese Wine Industry 4. Country Comparison 4.1. General Economic Indicators 4.2. Infrastructure 4.3. Population 4.3.1 Demographic Factors 4.4. Current Wine Consumption 4.4.1. Food States 4.5. Socio-cultural Conditions 4.5.1. Life-style/ComsumerBehaviourRead MoreGenetic And Environmental Factors Of Prostate Cancer3106 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesgenetic and environmental factors (Bechis, et al, 2010). Race In the UK African and Caribbean men are 2 or 3x more likely to develop PCa than Caucasian men. Asian men are least likely to develop PCa. Japanese- American men have a higher rate of PCa than native Japanese men. This could be because of their diet, co-existing medical conditions, obesity etc that affect the severity of the cancer. Genetic factors have been identified with 8q24 being the most important. 8q24 contains regulatory variants, whichRead MoreNike Marketing Plan Essay7652 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagesfound his market niche. He just didnt know how influential this project would turn out to be. After earning his MBA in 1963, Phil Knight began a world tour that included a stop in Japan. Seemingly on a whim, Knight scheduled an interview with a Japanese running shoe manufacturer named Onituska Tiger. He presented himself as the representative of an American distributor interested in selling Tiger shoes to American runners. He then, in a moments notice, thought of the name Blue Ribbon Sports. TheRead MoreCardiovascular Disease ( Cvd )9447 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesdiagnosed patients are still at a high risk of progressing to hypertension and thus are highly recommended to establish a proper diet and exercise routine. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stage 1 Hypertension is signified by readings of blood pressures in the range of 140-159/90- 99 mmHg. The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s blood pressure is typically lowered to normal levels by administering the proper and most effective type of anti-hypertensive medication for the patient. It is imperative that the medication is determined on an individual basis becauseRead MoreCountry Notebook Essay12249 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pagesprofessionals. The firm is unusual in that its product line is aimed at two specific but unrelated markets: prenatal and postnatal care and geriatric medicine. The firm is now trying to export the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product, specifically LactAbound, which is a diet supplement for the prenatal market that helps mothers produce healthier milk, to South Korea. II. Brief discussion of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s relevant history History of Korea During the 10th century B.C., the first Korean
Question: Discuss about theScientific Management for Planning and Organizing. Answer: Introduction Management is the activity of managing the things or activities conducted in an organization. Management is the act of supervision and includes planning, organizing, staffing, direction control in a business in order to achieve goals (Morden, 2017). BOD (Board of Directors) have important role in the management. In this assignment we are going to discuss four approaches of management. First is scientific management. This method focuses on using scientific approach in each and every activity of organization that how work should be done, also match work according to the special skill of workers. Second is job enrichment, in this responsibility of employees is increased by assigning them some work of higher authority, which improves their position gives employee a greater satisfaction. In the third approach that is Japanese management concentrates on team work or collectivism. Finally in the fourth approach re-engineering, process of business is redesigned. Four Approaches to Management Scientific Management The idea of scientific management was given by Frederick Winslow Taylor. He was the first to bring in notice to work scientifically and defined the way work should be done. He suggested that managers should measure productivity scientifically and set high level of records for workers to achieve (Cohen, 2013). Managers should cooperate with workers. Scientific managers focused supervisors to walk around with stop watches and note pads carrying out time motion studies on workers in various department of the organization (Trujillo, 2014). It is the piece rate system in which workers are paid for the work done not for their time. It simplifies the job and increases efficiency productivity. Selection of the people who are right and efficient can be done by following this process and such people should be hired in future. It focuses on the lower level of management and the relationship among nature of work and workers (Jeacle Parker, 2013). Scientific Management leads to specialization, technical competence organizational efficiency. Principles of scientific management: Replace rule of thumb by scientific approach to get efficient management: Rule of thumb is basically guideline that is given on a particular subject or topic to accomplish a task. It develops by practice and experience by an employee whereas scientific management is knowing already what to do exactly and knowing this goals can be achieved easily. Assign work to the workers in which they have specialized skills: Scientific management focuses on the specialization. The persons who are specialized in a particular process brings more efficiency to the organization. Monitor task of workers, check the way they perform the activity and supervise them: Managers assign the task to employees check the way they perform initially and according to that they assign the work further and supervise them (Waring, 2016). Divide work between top level and low level of management so that managers can plan work to be done scientifically: Managers divide the task between top and low level management as managers are already known to scientific management which can bring specialization to lower level (Vance, et. al.,2014). Job Enrichment Job enrichment is the common motivational technique in which management motivates employees by giving them some extra work which was reserved for managers (Adeyemo, Sehoole Cueno, 2015). Job enrichment makes work more interesting and challenging. It reduces repetition of work. It provides opportunity for employees growth, achievement, advancement and recognition of employees. It gives satisfaction to employees and satisfied employees are more productive loyal towards organization (Saleem, 2012). Employees found themselves a level higher, also it reduces boredom. It is a medium through which employees learn new things and creates a better work for environment. Components of job enrichment: Social needs: Social needs can be appreciation, intimacy, acceptance, love, friendship, relationship, companionship and belonging. Social needs are essential for growth development. If a persons social needs are fulfilled then that person can save himself from depression, anxiety and loneliness (Dastranj Helali, 2016). A person feels encouraged when he or she is in good relationship with friends relatives. Problems of employees can be solved by interacting and supporting them, which helps them to contribute their efforts towards growth of organization. Achievement: Achievement is a motivator that an employee develops. Achievement can be something such as completing a project, reaching goal, achieving targets. It improves performance and increases productivity. Achievement leads to employee recognition. Once a person gets desired results then he is more focused on the work from which he achieves something. Achievement gives financial reward to employees in the form of bonus, incentive and gifts. Recognition: Recognition is the acknowledgement of an individuals efforts towards the growth of an organization. Employee recognition is important as it enhances employees loyalty, builds up morale, increases motivation let them know that their work is valued and they are important to organization. Some activities can be conducted for employees recognition such as leadership rewards, personal note to the employees, praise by top level management for the contribution of employees, gift them as a sign of appreciation, mention their achievements at notice board. Responsibility: When employees understand what other members of the organization expect of them, then it is much easy to understand their rights responsibilities towards organization. Responsibilities of an employee towards organization are to be punctual, loyal, treat customers as he is the owner of business, ensure safety and security of clients, and follow instructions of employer carefully. Employers responsibility is reporting to employees, ensure employees health and safety at work place, welfare of employees, guidelines, training and supervision and provide them instructions. Japanese Management The Japanese management approach was derived in japan in 1988. To see the success of companies in japan, many other countries also have opted this concept. This method is based on living style working conditions of japan. This concept stresses on improvement in quality and reduction of waste. The Japanese companies provide the best working conditions with best salary packages (Danford, 2013). But the job in these Japanese companies is a dream which is limited to the men and women who are graduated from top thirty colleges universities in japan. The students who dont get admission in these colleges and universities have no chance to work in these companies. So they have to work in small and medium size enterprises. The key features of Japanese management are: Practice of permanent employment: Employees are hired on the basis of their intelligence and educational background not on the basis on their specialization skills (Wakabayashi Yamada, 2017). These employees are hired directly from colleges and trained for six months to one year. After a few years of practicing in an organization, employees know each and every aspect of the company. If the employees survive for initial six months then they are expected to survive for their whole life in that organization only. This is productive to an organization. System of promotion and reward: Seniors have the better condition in the organization compared to the younger ones. Youngers accept this fact because they know that their condition will also be better in the future once they are experienced (Fried, et. al., 2014). So, seniority is given more importance in the organization and they will have more rewards and better promotions. Rewards are given in the form of tangible and intangible benefits such as low cost of loans, vacations and more. Decision making process: Employees have fully involvement in decision making process. Top level management has important role in the decision making process. Seniors understand each and every facet of organization, so they can take decisions appropriately. Youngers are kept away in decision making process. High salary packages: Companies who are following Japanese management are in better working conditions. Japanese management companies provide excellent salaries and permanent employment. These companies provide all the elite facilities, which increase their contribution towards the company. It is the dream of everyone to work in such company. Once the employees are satisfied towards company it will impart to companys progress. Employment welfare: Employment welfare is the main element of Japanese management. It is done by providing health care facilities, low rent homes, vacations, low cost of loans, medical facilities, holidays and more (Haghirian, 2016). Increment in salary and promotions are given every year based on their work. Welfares main purpose is to bring change and remove stress in the organization. Training: Training is given on time to ensure an employee meets the requirement of job easily. Management trainees who are recruited directly from colleges universities have to complete a six month probation period and are trained in the company way. Research Development activities are also conducted for the improvement of organization. Re-engineering Re-engineering approach also known as Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is re-design of business processes to achieve improvements in productivity and quality. The concept of BPR was first introduced in 1990.BPR is the activity to rethink and redesign the processes that how work should be done which helps to reduce costs and achieve organizational goals (Abu Naser Al Shobaki, 2016). By concentrating on the ground up design of the business process BPR can restructure the organization for concentrating on the design we are supposed to follow some principles of re-engineering: Build-up leadership: Leadership is the most important principle of Business process re-engineering. A leader always lead and is followed by his followers. Qualities of a leader are honesty, confidence, creativity, positive attitude, responsible, sense of humor, ability to inspire and managing failure. Process orientation: Identify all the processes of organization and prioritize them according to urgency. Organize around outcomes, users of output must perform the task. Those who perform the process must use the output. Define customer needs: BPR is used mainly to increase customers. This is the reason a business keep on redefining the process to meet customer requirements. Capture information: Information and knowledge are the sources that are aimed to achieve competitive advantage. Capture information once and at the source (Matthews, et. al., 2015). Goal-oriented: A business should focus on the goals not on the task. If a business is not able to achieve the goals then the process is redesigned to achieve the goals. Stress on value added activities: This principle states that value added activities should be identified and focus should be on these activities as it adds something to organization. Non value added activities should be eliminated as it is time wastage plus resource wastage to an organization. Techniques such as ABC Analysis realizes the value focus principle. After knowing the principles of BPR, it is easy to attempt the process. Business process re-engineering is also called business process redesign, business process transformation. Steps involved in re-engineering process are: Refocus on customer needs. Put together a team of experts. Recognize all processes in an organization and redesign them if needed. Use information technology to improve performance and cut cost (Doumeingts Browne, 2016). Recognize issues related with organization. Improve business process of whole organization. An organization opts for re-engineering when it needs to be fast. After knowing the process of re-engineering, we need to concentrate mainly on these two points: Focus on leadership: An organization functions more effectively when the leaders are appointed. Characteristics of leadership include hardworking, competence, patience, involvement goal oriented. Leaders motivate employees to redesign the organization by using information technology. Leaders bring realization to employees that their efforts can contribute to organizational goals and can manage performance. Persons who are leading involve in the process of redesigning the process conducted in an organization. Successful and unsuccessful BPR depends on the competitive advantage of leadership. Successful BPR leaders use leadership style that fits into the type of task to be performed. This is the reason leadership is the reason for the high rate of success and failure of BPR projects. Focus on customer: BPR activities ultimately lead to increasing the number of customers and users. Customer satisfaction is the ultimately aim of BPR. Process is redesigned to response customer needs. The process of re-engineering is to make organizations more effective, flexible and efficient for their customers. Value added systems are also recognized to satisfy and prioritize them. Value added systems are used to generate valuable output of value to the customer. It directly increases the profitability and efficiency of the organization. Conclusion From this report, it has been concluded that organizations have become more efficient and productive after applying scientific techniques because scientific management leads to specialization. Employees become more responsible and loyal to the organization after applying job enrichment because repetition of work is reduced and position of employees is improved. After adopting Japanese management, companies started providing better work conditions with good salary packages and employee welfare is also given more importance. So, as a result employees started giving more contribution to the organization. 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